A wire engaged in orthodontic attachments, affixed to the crowns of two or more teeth and capable of causing or guiding tooth movement.


A thin metal ring, usually stainless steel, which serves to secure orthodontic attachments to a tooth. The band, with orthodontic attachments welded or soldered to it, is closely adapted to fit the contours of the tooth and then cemented into place.


An orthodontic attachment that is secured to a tooth (either by bonding or banding) for the purpose of engaging an archwire. Brackets can be fabricated from metal, ceramic or plastic.

ceramic brackets

Crystalline, alumina, tooth-shade or clear synthetic sapphire brackets that are aesthetically more attractive than conventional metal attachments.


Dental malalignment caused by inadequate space for the teeth.


The removal of cemented orthodontic bands.

elastics (rubber bands)

Used to move teeth in prescribed direction (commonly connected to molar band and upper ball hook). Found in numerous colors for better appearance.


The tissue that surrounds the teeth, consisting of a fibrous tissue that is continuous with the periodontal ligament and mucosal covering.


Generic term for extraoral traction (attached around the back side of the head) for growth modification, tooth movement and anchorage.

Herbst appliance

Fixed or removable appliance designed commonly for overbite problems and more.


The process of acquiring representations of structures in either two or three dimensions.


Of or pertaining to the tongue. A term used to describe surfaces and directions toward the tongue.

lingual appliances

Orthodontic appliances fixed to the lingual surface of the teeth.


Of or pertaining to the upper jaw. May be used to describe teeth, dental restorations, orthodontic appliances or facial structures.


A dental specialist who has completed a three year advanced post-doctoral orthodontic course accredited by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA)

orthognathic surgery

Surgery to alter relationships between the jaws, accomplished in conjunction with orthodontic treatment.


Vertical overlapping of upper teeth over lower teeth, usually measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane.


An image produced by ionising radiation (x-rays).


Any orthodontic appliance, fixed or removable, used to maintain the position of the teeth following corrective treatment.


The passive treatment period following active orthodontic correction during which retaining appliances may be used.

straight wire appliance

A variation of the edgewise appliance in which brackets are angulated to minimise multiple archwire bends. Brackets and molar tubes have specific orientation in three planes of space.